Documents

These are some of the documents our reporters used in reporting their stories. They present an authoritative account of how U.S. officials and experts view climate change as a security issue.

Click on the pictures to browse each document. Once in the document view, click on “notes” at the top of the viewer to see the key sections identified by our reporters.

View documents related to
U.S. policy
Climate science
Impacts on U.S. economy and population
Climate change impacts on international security
The intelligence community


U.S. policy

President Barack Obama's first national security strategy, published in May 2010, calling the danger from climate change 'real, urgent, and severe.'

Pentagon strategy document outlines the need to tackle climate and energy challenges, saying 'climate change could have significant geopolitical impacts.'

Eleven retired three- and four-star generals and admirals calling attention to climate change as a national security threat in this 2007 report.

President George W. Bush's national security directive lays out military and economic priorities in the melting Arctic, emphasizing scientific cooperation.

Navy's first Climate Change Roadmap, detailing how the service will operate in a changing environment, for example by addressing effects on Navy bases.

The Navy's first Arctic Roadmap outlines its strategy for a warming Arctic, including assessing the Navy's capabilities, working with international partners, and training.

Summarizes interagency efforts to adapt to climate change, which it says has direct implications for U.S. security.

November 2010 report by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change summarizing climate change activities for each federal agency.

John Podesta, a former chief of staff to President Bill Clinton, and Peter Ogden, national security analyst, outline intelligence community concerns.


Climate Science

Assesses climate change impacts along regional and topical sectors, including water resources, agriculture and transportation.

Analysts at the Center for a New American Security report that scientists and national security professionals have trouble talking to each other.

The controversial fourth formal assessment by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on key changes in climate.

Third formal assessment by the IPCC outlining key changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, found by working groups of climate scientists worldwide.

In its second formal assessment, the UN group outlining key changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, found by working groups of climate scientists worldwide.

First formal assessment by the IPCC outlining key changes in climate and their effects on natural and human systems, found by working groups of climate scientists worldwide.


Impacts on the U.S. economy and population

QHSR

Department of Homeland Security's 2010 strategy outlining broad political goals and threats posed by a changing climate.

Key report on impacts of climate change on U.S. infrastructure and how transportation decision-makers could address these impacts, focusing on the Gulf Coast.

A New York City report outlining climate change projections and presenting scenarios for key infrastructure concerns.

Report by the University of Maryland estimating the costs of lack of adaptation or mitigation of climate change to the U.S.

OECD

Report places Miami, New York, Virginia Beach and New Orleans among the cities most exposed to coastal flooding.

Study highlighting 11 key areas of health impacts to occur due to climate change.


Impacts on international security

Report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development outlining significant climate risks for Bangladesh, including flooding and stronger monsoons.

Partly funded through the UN High Commissioner on Refugees, report mapping migration due to sea level rise, glacial melt and more frequent disasters.

International treaty updating ocean law to include provisions for sea bed mining, navigational limits, exclusive economic zones and protection of maritime environments.

Commissioned by the federal government of Britain, a touchstone reports on the economic impacts of climate change.

Background paper by New York University researcher Alex Evans for the World Bank's World Development Report.

Britain's 2008 security strategy calls climate change 'potentially the greatest challenge to global stability and security,' adding that its impact is already felt.

Arturo A. Valenzuela, assistant secretary of state for the Western Hemisphere, testimoney before the House Committee on Foreign Affiars on U.S. policy in the Americas on March 10, 2010.

A 2009 study by CNA, a security analysis group, on the climate change impacts in Colombia and their security implications for the region and the United States.

Executive order addressing the national strategy for climate change that instructs regional and local governments on mitigating and adapting to climate change impacts. (In Spanish)

Navy Adm. James Stavridis, at the time head of U.S. Southern Command, reports security challenges and priorities in Latin America to Congress.

World Bank report noting unequivocal warming in the Andes and highlights melting of Andean glaciers as a concern.

Report analyzing challenges to water access due to climate change, especially in places where two or more countries share a river.


Intelligence community documents

Deputy Director of National Intelligence Thomas Fingar testifies before two House committees in 2008, summarizing the findings of the (classified) National Intelligence Assessment on global warning.

Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Environmental Security Sherri Goodman discusses the impact of environmental degradation on national security.

1996 speech by John Deutch, at the time director of Central Intelligence, describing the importance of environmental intelligence.

Report from the National Academy of Science's group on Climate, Energy and National Security.

Report from the National Academy of Science's group on Climate, Energy and National Security.

Report from the National Academy of Science's group on Climate, Energy and National Security.

National Intelligence Council report on key factors driving global security trends, including climate change and water and food scarcity.

Pentagon-sponsored report studying the national security impacts of abrupt climate change.

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